What is ARFID?

Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, also known as ARFID, is an eating disorder or feeding disturbance that is characterized by a persistent failure to meet appropriate nutritional and/or energy needs. ARFID is often associated with a psychiatric co-morbidity, especially anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder. This condition affects both genders and is more common in children and young adolescents; however, it can occur in late adolescence and adulthood as well.

ARFID Causes

Like other eating disorders and disturbances, there is no singular cause of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). Parents and caregivers of patients who are exhibiting symptoms of ARFID may contribute their condition to being extremely picky about their food choices. But studies show that a major cause of ARFID could be biological [1]. The evolving scientific research about ARFID suggests that this pattern of disordered eating can develop from a complex interplay between genetic, psychological and sociocultural factors.

Understanding the cause of ARFID guides treatment, however, a course of action for patients experiencing ARFID will also be based on their individual symptoms.

[1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6281436/

ARFID Symptoms and Warning Signs

The symptoms of ARFID, or avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, vary widely and may evolve with the developmental context of the individual, especially in children and adolescents. The symptoms of ARFID can generally be categorized into the types of ARFID, which will guide individual treatment approaches. We explore the different types of ARFID to help you identify potential symptoms and warning signs.

Types of ARFID

Like other eating disorder conditions, there are several different types of ARFID, depending on the symptoms the individual is experiencing. The types of ARFID include: Avoidant, Aversive, Restrictive, Adult ARFID and ARFID “Plus.”

Avoidant

One common type of ARFID is Avoidant. In this condition, individuals simply avoid certain types of foods in relation to sensory features, causing a sensitivity or over stimulation reaction. These patients may feel sensitive to the smell of foods; textures, including soft foods or fruit and vegetables that have prickly or defined textures; or general appearance, including color.

Aversive

Another type of the ARFID eating disorder is Aversive. Individuals whose food refusal is related to the Aversive type may experience on fear-based reactions. Aversive ARFID evokes a fear of choking, nausea, vomiting, pain and/or swallowing, forcing the individual to avoid the food altogether.

Restrictive

Individuals who experience Restrictive ARFID may show signs of little-to-no interest in food. Restrictive ARFID can make one forget to eat altogether, show signs of a low appetite or get extremely distracted during mealtime. Another symptom of Restrictive includes extreme pickiness of foods, resulting in limited intake.

Adult ARFID

Symptoms of ARFID not only take place in children and adolescents; in fact, many adults can show signs of ARFID. Individuals with ARFID in their adult years may still have symptoms that were experienced in their adolescent years and can be categorized as Avoidant, Aversive or Restrictive types of ARFID. ARFID symptoms in adults can include selective or extremely picky eating, food peculiarities, texture, color or taste aversions related to food.

ARFID "Plus"

Individuals who are experiencing more than one type of ARFID can begin to develop features of anorexia nervosa, including concerns about body weight and size, fear of weight gain, negativity about fatness, negative body image without body image distortion and preference for less calorie-dense foods. This combination of symptoms is categorized as ARFID “Plus,” a co-occurring eating disorder.

ARFID vs. Anorexia

ARFID is often confused with anorexia nervosa because weight loss and nutritional deficiency are common shared symptoms between the two disorders. However, the primary difference between ARFID and anorexia is that ARFID lacks the drive for thinness that is so common for individuals with anorexia.

ARFID Treatment

At Eating Recovery Center, treatment for avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) begins with a comprehensive assessment to determine the type of eating disorder and other core issues. Medical stabilization, psychiatric stabilization, nutritional rehabilitation and weight restoration (when appropriate) are all provided.

ARFID Facts

Although research about ARFID is ongoing, there is a lot you can learn about this condition to understand how to help your loved one. Learn more about ARFID, including the causes of this condition, symptoms of ARFID, and available treatment options.

ARFID Quiz

Are you or a loved one suffering from the symptoms of ARFID? Learn more about this condition and the symptoms you or your loved one is experiencing by taking Eating Recovery Center’s ARFID quiz.

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Seek Highly Specialized Treatment for ARFID

Eating Recovery Center offers specialized treatment for children, adolescents and adults struggling with ARFID. Please call us at 866-753-3817 to schedule an assessment by one of our Master’s-level clinicians. Eating Recovery Center is the nation's only health care system dedicated to the treatment of ARFID at all levels of care including inpatient treatment, residential treatment, partial hospitalization treatment and intensive outpatient treatment.

Eating Recovery Center is accredited through the Joint Commission. This organization seeks to enhance the lives of the persons served in healthcare settings through a consultative accreditation process emphasizing quality, value and optimal outcomes of services.

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